NEET Biology section carries 50% score of total 180 questions in NEET 2021 exam. The entire Biology section is classified into two subsections and these are Zoology and Botany. Both these subsections carry 50% weightage. Furthermore, NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus by NTA comprises the NCERT prescribed topics.
- Thorough practice and consistency are the two best possible ways to get a good score in the Biology section.
- If prepared well with a good time management plan, you can score up to 90% in the biology section.
- Many of you are not big fans of the plant kingdom unit, as there are plenty of scientific terms that are used in this unit. So the best option is to prepare this at last as the percentage weightage of this unit is only 1% to 3%.
You can be free from the hassles of technical preparations and rote learning if you just follow the article closely. This article will turn out to be a complete NEET Guide for Biology.
NEET Biology Syllabus Highlights
|Total weightage of NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus||50% of NEET score|
|Subsection||Botany and Zoology|
|Number of questions asked||90|
|Marks allotted for each question||+4 marks for a correct answer|
|Negative marking||-1 mark for the wrong answer|
|Total marks for Biology||360 out of 720 marks|
NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus of Class 11th and 12th
|NEET 2021 Biology syllabus of Class 11th||Weightage|
|Unit I – Diversity in Living World||9%|
|Unit II- Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants||9%|
|Unit III- Cell Structure and Function||15%|
|Unit IV- Plant Physiology||17%|
|Unit V- Human physiology||28%|
|NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus Class 12th||Weightage|
|Unit I – Reproduction||14%|
|Unit II – Genetics and Evolution||7%|
|Unit III – Biology and Human Welfare||18%|
|Unit IV – Biotechnology and its Applications||12%|
|Unit V – Ecology and Environment||19%|
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NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus – Chapters
NTA NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus is subdivided into two sections that are Zoology and Botany. 45 questions are asked from each section, which means the NEET Biology section will be asking a total of 90 questions. Remember there are a total of 180 questions to be solved in just 180 minutes. To maximize the score in the NEET Biology section, candidates must give priority to both sub-sections. As per the notice by NTA, NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus is almost similar to that of NEET 2020 Biology Syllabus.
Given below are the chapters from NTA NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus:
- Diversity in Living World
- Structural Organization in Animals and Plants
- Cell Structure and Function
- Plant Physiology
- Human Physiology
- Genetics and Evolution
- Biology and Human Welfare
- Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Ecology and Environment
- Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Detailed NEET Biology Syllabus of Class XI
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
- What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomic hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria
- Five kingdom classification, salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens;
- Botanical gardens, Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms
- Viruses and Viroids, Salient features and classification of animals: nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category) Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples), Salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical)
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and Syllabus) reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, cell wall, Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, Cell envelope, Plant cell and animal cell, cell membrane, Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,
- Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
Must Read NEET 2021 Sample Papers
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport;
- Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;
- Transpiration: Opening and closing of stomata
- Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients: Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention)
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity;
- Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological, nitrogen fixation
- Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis
- Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth
- Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism
UNIT V: Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal, digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes, gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea
- Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory Products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory
- System-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney
- Locomotion and Movement: ciliary, flagellar, muscular movements; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions; Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary,
- Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders.
Detailed NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus of Class XII
UNIT I: Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination Types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation
- Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology), modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environment
- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations, Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus: Topic-wise Weightage
While students start preparing for the whole syllabus, they forget what requires more attention. A lot of coaching institutes and school teachers focus on topics which are cumulatively important for the board exams but do not reveal their weightage in NEET examination. A chapter which has more than 4% weightage in NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus can be considered important as 4% constitutes about 3 to 4 questions out of 180 or about 14 to 15 marks out of 720. This means that the chances of a question being asked from that particular chapter are much more. Given below is a table which specifies the weightage of all the topics of NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus:
|Biology Syllabus for NEET||Weightage (%)|
|Human Physiology Biological Classification Molecular Basis of Inheritance||12.0%|
|Molecular Basis of Inheritance||8.2%|
|Human Health and Diseases||4.3%|
|Biotechnology: Principles and Processes||3.1%|
|Microbes in Human Welfare||2.7%|
|Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production||1.4%|
NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus: Difficulty Analysis
NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus by NTA constitutes 50% of the weightage for NEET overall. Considering the importance of the exam, the high weightage seems reasonable. According to the past analysis of various sessions of NEET, the trend seems to be like this-
- Around 50% of the questions from the Biology section are Easy.
- 30% to 35% Questions are Moderate in terms of difficulty.
- 15% to 20% Questions are Difficult to answer for everyone.
|Section||Easy Questions||Moderate Questions||Difficult Questions|
A good score in NEET Biology is said to be around 200 to 300 marks. If a student has good speed and knowledge here, NEET Biology score can easily reach above 200.
NEET 2021 Preparation Tips for Biology Syllabus
- Try and relate to the definition of scientific terms, instead of mugging them
- Discuss the terms and definitions learned with your friends, this will help you in remembering the definitions better
- Sketch a diagram daily related to the syllabus defined, as plenty of questions are related to diagrams
- Most biology questions are from NCERT books, practice well
- Keep a metric check of your score in various NEET important topics, that will help you in identifying the weak topics
- Do regular practices of MCQs from different topics
- Try to work with the 10-year papers and NEET mock tests
- Do a self-check of the answers, go for comparative study
- Track of your performance by keeping a graph of your score in various test series.
NTA Free Video Lectures for NEET Biology Syllabus (IIT-PAL)
Aspirants who are weak in any particular topic of NEET Biology Syllabus can cover these topics easily by watching video lectures from top subject experts. The video lectures are uploaded under the nemesis of IIT-PAL on Youtube.
The video lectures are available under playlists made for various topics of Class XI and XII with lectures duration ranging from 45 minutes to 1 hour for a single topic. To access these lectures follow the steps below:
- Go to the official website of NTA – nta.ac.in
- Click on the ‘Students’ tab.
- Click on ‘Content Based Lectures’ under Test Practice Center.
- Once the new page loads, click on Biology which will direct you to the Youtube Page.
- Alternatively, students can also search for IIT-PAL Biology lectures on Youtube on their mobile phone or tablet.
NEET Previous Year Question Papers
If a student is unable to find the right source for NEET Previous Year Question Papers, he/she can always refer to the NTA Website which also provides old question papers of almost every examination.
To download NEET Previous Year Question Papers-
- Head over to www.nta.ac.in
- Click on the ‘Downloads’ tab
- Now, in this new page, look for Previous Year Question Papers
- Choose the year and the exam as NEET.
- List of available papers will be populated.
- Click on Download Link to save the PDF of question papers.
NTA Free Mock Tests for NEET Biology Syllabus
NTA has provided free mock tests for NEET Biology as well as other subjects from NEET. Aspirants can attempt these mocks at the comfort of their homes. A stable internet connection will be required along with a compatible browser such as Google Chrome or Microsoft Edge. The NTA mock tests are available section-wise which helps students focus on a particular topic.
To access NEET mock tests, follow steps below-
- Head to – www.nta.ac.in
- Click on the ‘Students’ tab
- Select Mock Test under Test Practice section.
- Now choose the exam you are appearing for and select the section you wish to attempt.
- Start the NEET mock test.
Best Books For NEET Biology Syllabus
In order to get an edge in your final performance in the exam, you must work with some best books for NEET Biology Syllabus. There are books that must be referred to specific topics and books that can be used as MCQ reference manuals. Reading NEET important topics is helpful as it saves time and prepares you for the important topics.
Just keep one thing in mind, study limited books as too many books can create confusion. Follow books which follow the latest NEET Biology syllabus of the year 2021.
Given below are some of the suggested books for NEET 2021 Biology Syllabus along with their publisher-
|Objective NCERT at your Fingertips for NEET-AIIMS – Biology||MTG Learning Media (P) Limited||938656193X|
|Trueman’s Objective Biology for NEET||Trueman Book Company||818722374X|
|NEET-AIPMT Biology 25 Years Chapterwise Solved Papers (1992-2017) By Career Point Kota||Career Point Publication||B01N9IQI7W|
|Master the NCERT Biology||Arihant Publication||9311123862|
|NCERT Xtract – Objective Biology for Class 11 & 12, AIPMT, AIIMS, JIPMER, BHU, AMU, State PMTs 2nd Edition||Disha Publication||9385576380|
|Objective Life Science (Plant Science)||S. Chand Publishing||9352533674|
The better you prepare for NEET, the better is your score and better placement in the college of your choice. It is important to give full commitment to the NEET 2021 Biology syllabus. The time allotted to this section should be merely 70 to 80 minutes, giving equal time to both Zoology and Botany sections independently. Biology requires direct knowledge and lease calculations. The quickest way to complete the NEET Biology section is not spending time thinking about a question. In Biology, facts do not work on logic, hence, you either know the answer or you don’t. There is no way you can ‘solve’ the answer in Biology.
So, open your books and start learning!